Questions inside sentences

Here’s one of those things that tend to trip me up: questions inside sentences, where the questions are not direct quotes.

Quotes, of course, we can handle well enough, as with the following example:

She asked me, “How do you punctuate this sentence?”

But how would you punctuate the following sentence, which contains a direct question that is not a quote?

the question is how do you punctuate this sentence

Should there be a question mark at the end of the sentence? Should the question part be in italics? In quotation marks? Should there be a comma—or maybe a colon—before “how”? Should “how” be capitalized?

Here’s what the experts say (I’m referring to the Chicago Manual of Style, 16th ed.):

1) When you have a direct question that is part of a sentence (as in my example), introduce it with a comma and end it with a question mark. Don’t use italics.

The question is, how do you punctuate this sentence?

2) The question itself shouldn’t start with a capital letter unless it’s a long question and/or the question itself has punctuation.

So in the following example we might want to capitalize the word how because (a) the question is quite long; and (b) the question itself contains punctuation (in this case what’s called an em-dash: —):

The question is, How do you punctuate this sentence—with a capital or with a lower case letter at the beginning?

Finally, bear in mind that all of the above applies only to direct questions—those that can stand on their own. Indirect questions, on the other hand, are simply written as part of the sentence, as in the following example:

The question is how you punctuate this sentence.

Here, the part “how you punctuate this sentence” cannot stand on its own. It’s an indirect question, and so we don’t introduce it with a comma or end it with a question mark.

In fact, Chicago suggests that if the direct question looks awkward, you might consider rephrasing the sentence so that it has an indirect question and you don’t have to worry about the whole thing at all.

But then I wonder, what should I be writing about instead?

Have you wondered how to punctuate questions inside sentences (that’s an indirect question inside a direct question—go figure)? Do you have any examples you can share and how you ended up punctuating them?

For more information, see Chicago Manual of Style (16h ed.), par. 6.52. Sign up for a free 30-day online trial at

Image at top courtesy of scottchan.